Preview Quiz 2

As a preview to what will be discussed in Part Two, try to answer this question:

Which one of these everyday acts requires the constant making of judgments?

  1. Driving an automobile
  2. Eating breakfast
  3. Riding an elevator

Begin reading Part Two to discover the correct answer.

The normal, everyday activities of most people require judgments. Driving an automobile, for example, involves making many judgments. A driver is constantly called upon to understand certain traffic conditions, evaluate the choices facing him, and make correct decisions. Judging if it is safe to pass another auto requires that the driver understand how to overtake and pass and that he evaluate the speed, road, and traffic circumstances before making his decision. A driver, seeing a child chase a ball into the street, must decide to stop or to swerve to the side. Either judgment may be valid depending on the driver's understanding of the situation and his evaluation of the circumstances.

The reader, like the driver, must also make judgments. The judgments which the reader makes also depend on his understanding of the situation and evaluation of the circumstances.

Let us see how these steps are applied in making a judgment, based on the information contained in the following paragraph:

Pollution is a real concern of many people. They are alarmed by the poor quality of air and water and bothered by people who pollute and don't care. Concerned citizens are prepared to fight the battle against pollution with every legal weapon they can use. A final solution will only come, however, when more citizens become concerned.

The paragraph you just read discusses pollution and the battle to control it. Pollution is a real problem in this country and in all countries where industry is widespread. But the paragraph also sounds a hopeful note. As a reader, if you understand the facts and evaluate them, you can make the following judgment: If more citizens become concerned, pollution can be controlled.

The judgment just made can be defended because the final line of the paragraph expresses hope in the ability of a large number of citizens to solve the problem.

The steps to making a judgment were followed in reaching this decision. When reading the facts about pollution in the paragraph, the reader should, understand or know from experience that things happen when large numbers of people combine and work together. This is an understanding of the facts. The reader can also evaluate the effect that could result from a large number of people united in a battle against pollution. This is an evaluation. The decision that pollution can be controlled if enough people care is a sound judgment.

Preview Quiz 3

As a preview to what will be discussed next, try to answer this question:

In addition to facts, what else must a person consider when making a judgment?

  1. His personal dislikes
  2. His willingness to take a chance
  3. His general understanding of the subject

Continue reading to discover the correct answer.

In the paragraph which follows you will be asked to make a judgment based on the information in the paragraph, combined with your understanding of the subject:

The South End Niners are a high-spirited amateur baseball team. The team has loyal fans who turn out in large numbers to cheer the players on to victory. This year, the team was invited to join the Atlantic Baseball League, an association of many fine semi-pro teams.

The following question requires that a judgment be made. Check the best answer.

The playing ability of the South End Niners is most likely

  1. average.
  2. superior.
  3. overrated.
  4. extraordinary.

The best answer is c, superior: It seems reasonable to judge the ability of the South End Niners as superior or above-average since the team was picked to join the semi-pro league. The support of the local fans shows that their playing ability is real and not overrated; however, there is no evidence in the paragraph to support the judgment that the team is extraordinary.

To make the sound or correct judgment, it is necessary first to understand the facts presented about the team. The players are high-spirited; this means they have the drive and morale needed in a winning team. The loyalty and attendance of their fans is another fact which shows that the team plays well and wins games. The final fact is that the team is good enough to join a better league

What do all these facts mean? When properly evaluated, the facts point to a reasonable decision: the judgment that the South End Niners are a superior baseball team.

The following paragraph offers another opportunity for judgment-making. As you read it, seek to understand the facts as presented; evaluate the information in terms of the situation as you see it; and make a judgment. See if your judgment matches one of the four choices given in the question which follows the paragraph.

In many factories, working conditions are poor. Workers have to spend eight to nine hours a day doing boring tasks in dirty surroundings. Cleaner working areas will improve the workers' situation, as will better pay. But more thought and planning are needed to create ideal conditions under which workers can take real pride in their work and obtain satisfaction from their job.

Preview Quiz 4

As a preview to what will be discussed next, try to answer this question:

Based on the paragraph just read, what must management consider first?

  1. Better pay and benefits
  2. Cleaner working conditions
  3. The workers' total needs

Continue reading to discover the correct answer.

The best answer is c, the total needs of the workers must be taken into consideration first. This judgment can be supported by understanding and evaluating the facts presented in the paragraph.

True, the paragraph points out the dirty surroundings and the need for higher pay, but the real message goes beyond that. The paragraph warns that the worker has other needs that may be more important—needs relating to pride and job satisfaction.

Answers a and b are true enough, but when the facts are evaluated properly, neither can be the best answer.

The best answer or the sound judgment is that the whole worker and all his needs must be considered.

These examples and explanations were designed to lead you through the steps involved in making correct judgments. Keep in mind that you need more than facts when making a judgment; you need understanding. Once you understand the facts, evaluate them. Try to view the facts from your experience and knowledge of similar situations. Then make the decision which is the most reasonable.

Remember, understand; evaluate; decide.